Borobudur was built around 800 or the 9th century. Borobudur was built by the followers of Mahayana Buddhism during the reign of Wangsa Syailendra. This temple was built in the victorious dynasty Syailendra. The founder of the Borobudur Temple, King Samaratungga originating from dynasty Wangsa Syailendra. The possibility of this temple was built around the year 824 and was completed around the year 900 during the reign of Queen Pramudawardhani who is the daughter of Samaratungga. While the architects who contributed to build this temple according to stories passed down through generations named Gunadharma.
Borobudur own words based on the first written evidence that was written by Sir Thomas Stamford Raffles, Governor General of the United Kingdom in Java, which gives the name of this temple. There is no written evidence that older who gave the name of this temple of Borobudur. Only one of the oldest document showing the existence of this temple is Nagarakretagama book, written by the MPU Prapanca in the year 1365. In the book was written that this temple was used as a place of Buddhist meditation.
Meaning of the name Borobudur “abbey in the hills”, which comes from the word “coal” (temple or monastery) and “beduhur” (hills or high ground) in Sanskrit. Therefore, in accordance with the meaning of the name Borobudur, then this place since long ago used as a place of Buddhist worship.
This temple for centuries no longer used. Then, because of volcanic eruptions, most of the buildings covered Borobudur volcanic soil. In addition, the building is also covered with various trees and shrubs for centuries. Then the building of this temple began forgotten in the time Islam arrived in Indonesia around the 15th century.
In 1814 when the British occupied Indonesia, Sir Thomas Stamford Raffles heard of the discovery of huge archaeological objects in the village of Magelang district Bumisegoro. Due to great interest of the history of Java, then immediately ordered Raffles HC Cornelius, a Dutch engineer, to investigate the discovery of the location was a hill covered with shrubs.
Cornelius assisted by about 200 men cut down trees and remove shrubs that covered the giant building. Because the building is already fragile and could collapse, then report to the Raffles Cornelius invention includes several images. Since the discovery, Raffles was awarded as the man who started restoration of Borobudur temple and got the attention of the world. In 1835, the entire area of the temple has been unearthed. The temple is kept restored in the Dutch colonial period.
After Indonesian independence, in 1956, the Indonesian government requested the assistance of UNESCO to examine the damage to Borobudur. Then in 1963, out of the official Indonesian government’s decision to conduct the restoration of Borobudur temple with the help of UNESCO. However, this restoration was only really started to be done on August 10, 1973. Process new refurbishment completed in 1984. Since 1991, Borobudur designated as World Heritage or World Heritage Site by UNESCO.
Borobudur Temple :
Borobudur temple is located in Magelang, Central Java, about 40 km from Yogyakarta. Borobudur has 10 levels consisting of 6 levels of a square, circular level 3 circular and a main stupa as a peak. At every level there are several stupas. Altogether there are 72 stupas in addition to the main stupa. In every stupa there are statues of Buddha. Ten levels of Buddhist philosophy which describes the ten levels of Bodhisattva who must pass to reach the perfection of the Buddha in nirvana. This perfection symbolized by the main stupa at the top level. Borobudur structure when viewed from above form a mandala structure depicting Buddhist cosmology and human thinking.
On the fourth side of the temple there is the gate and stairs to the level above it like a pyramid. This illustrates the Buddhist philosophy that all life came from rocks. Stone later became the sand, then into plants, then into the insect, then become wild animals and pets, and the last to be human. This process is known as reincarnation. The last process is to be the soul and eventually into nirvana. Each stage of enlightenment in this life processes based on Buddhist philosophy is illustrated in reliefs and statues in the whole temple of Borobudur.
This huge building just a giant pile of stone blocks which have a total height of 42 meters. Each stone connected without the use of cement or adhesive. These stones are only connected by patterns and stacked. The base of Borobudur temple is about 118 m on each side. The stones which used approximately 55,000 cubic meters. All the stones are taken from the river around the Borobudur Temple. The stones are cut and then transported and connected with a pattern like lego game. All without using glue or cement.
Meanwhile, relief began to be made after the completion rocks stacked and connected. Reliefs found on the temple walls. Borobudur has different relief 2670. Relief is read clockwise. This relief illustrates a story that I read it starts and ends at the gate to the east. This shows that the main gate of Borobudur temple facing the east like most other Buddhist temples.
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